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Osteomalacia is a mineralization disorder of bone tissue. Calcium and phosphate deficiency in extracellular fluid, dysfunction of cells responsible for bone formation, defective collagen production, etc. occur due to. The most important cause of calcium and phosphate deficiency is malabsorption. It may progress with skeletal pain, humpback and long bone fractures.


Osteoporosis is a common condition in aging and postmenopausal women. It occurs due to a decrease in sex hormones. Malnutrition, alcohol and smoking are also included in the etiology. Bone mass decreases and becomes brittle. Spine and hip fractures are the most common.


Paget's disease is also known as osteitis deformans. It is a disease with uncontrolled loss of bone tissue and formation of new, thick but soft bone. The waist and hip regions are most commonly involved. Alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly increased in the blood. Calcium, phosphate and parathormone are normal.


Ankylosing spondylitis is a genetic factor that affects the joint capsule and ligaments with HLA B27  positivity. Sacroiliac joint involvement is common and often confused with herniated disc. It is treated by rheumatologists and physical therapists.


Reiter's syndrome progresses with urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis (joint rheumatism)  triple finding. HLA B27 is 80% positive. The axial skeleton may be involved in inflammatory bowel diseases, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, pyogenic and granulomatous diseases.

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