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Carotico-Cavernous Fistula (CCF)

CSF can occur post-traumatic or spontaneous. It occurs in 0.2% of post-traumatic patients.


Pain in and behind the eye, chemosis, pulsatile proptosis, murmur in the eye or head, visual disturbance, diplopia, other eye disorders.


Even if normal eye movements cannot be achieved in the affected eye, it is desirable to preserve vision because surgical treatment for some movement disorders can further reduce movement.


Since approximately 50% of low-flow CSFs are spontaneously thrombosed (clot closed), they can be observed as long as visual acuity is stable and eye pressure is below an average of 25. High-flow lesions or those with progressive worsening of vision usually require balloon embolization (occlusion).  Adjustable latex balloon is inflated to reduce flow completely or to allow thrombosis_cc781905. -5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_

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