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Vein of Galen Malformations (GVM)


It is an enlargement of the vein of Galen. Also called vein of Galen aneurysm. It can be congenital or develop secondary to high flow of AVMs or fistula.


In newborns, heart failure and a head murmur are seen in the first week (due to high flow). Enlargement of the brain chambers (hydrocephalus) may be seen after the enlarged GVM blocks the circulation pathways of the cerebrospinal fluid circulating in the brain or due to increased intracranial pressure (causing the skin veins to become prominent). 

Untreated GVM malformations have a poor prognosis. There is a nearly 100% risk of death in newborns. At 1-12 months of age, the average risk of death is 60%, and the risk of serious neurological damage is 7%. However, 21% of the cases are normal. 


The medical condition of pediatric patients is generally poor and reduces the effectiveness of surgical treatment. One of the treatment options is occlusion of the main feeding vessel by angiographic methods, namely embolization. The prognosis is poor. Patients with hydrocephalus due to Aquaduct compression usually present at the end of their first year of life. Neurosurgical treatment is recommended in this case and the prognosis is better. 


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