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In general, we can classify brain tumors as malignant (malignant) and benign (benign).

I-Malignant Tumors
II-Benign Tumors

Benign Brain Tumors

These are tumors that usually develop inside the skull but outside the brain tissue. Meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, dermoid and epidermoid tumors, hemangioblastoma, colloid cyst, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, neuromas are the most common lesions of this group. Meningiomas constitute an important part of this group. Unlike benign tumors in other organs, benign brain tumors can sometimes cause life-threatening conditions. Some (for example, meningiomas) can transform into malignant tumors, although they are rare. Since they generally do not spread to the surrounding brain tissue, they have a high chance of being completely removed by surgery. However, they may reappear, albeit to a lesser extent. It is known that even in the case of complete removal of meningiomas, 20% of them can recur in 10 years, and post-surgical complications may occur, especially in those that are adhered to important areas.



In patients with brain tumor, one of the complaints such as headache, vomiting, nausea, visual impairment, loss of consciousness, convulsions, weakness in the arms and legs, irritability, loss of appetite, decreased hearing, forgetfulness, inability to speak and understand, inability to write, imbalance, enlargement of the hands and feet. or a few of them. Headache (usually more severe in the morning) and seizure are the most common findings.


Diagnostic Methods:

The diagnosis is usually made by clinical evaluation, computerized brain tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. These examinations can also be repeated with contrast material in order to better define tumor boundaries and features. Definitive diagnosis is made after pathological examinations. Some tests helpful in diagnosis include direct head x-rays, EEG, whole body bone scintigraphy, and hormone examinations.


Treatment Methods:

Generally, surgical removal of the tumor is considered the first choice for almost all brain tumors. In a minority, partial removal or radiotherapy and follow-up are recommended due to the high complication rate. Especially in high-grade glial tumors, after the diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy, radio-surgery or chemotherapy (drug therapy) can be applied instead of tumor removal. Some of the benign lesions located in the brain stem can be surgically removed, while radio-surgery (Gamma knife, linear accelator=linac) can be applied in some of them. In short, the degree of malignancy and location of the tumor, the patient's age, general condition, and the presence of additional systemic problems determine the surgical decision making and the limits of surgical tumor removal.


Possible Complications After Surgery:

Complications that may occur after surgery are not independent of the type of tumor, location, age and general condition of the patient. Seizure, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, bleeding, worsening of the existing neurological condition, deterioration in vision, speech and perception, hydrocephalus, swelling in the extremities, redness, delayed healing of the wound site, infection, thromboembolism, some psychiatric problems are some of the possible complications of surgery. . While the majority of these complications can improve with medical care after surgery, some (for example, worsening of the neurological condition) may be permanent. One or more of these complications may develop in the same patient. However, the most important point to remember is; In the presence of a tumor in the brain, the systemic problems caused by this tumor are often life-threatening.


Follow-up and Suggestions:

If the tumor is benign (benign) and has been completely removed, a check-up is usually done once a year after the first and six-month check-ups. In malignant tumors, it is appropriate to determine the control times by taking into account the follow-ups of the neurosurgeon, medical oncologist (expert in the treatment with cancer drugs), radiation oncologist (expert in the radiation therapy of cancer), physical therapy and rehabilitation departments. Writing the necessary examinations in the control at the time of discharge makes it easier for the patient to balance their appointments. If the patient has any problems (headache, seizures, unconsciousness, weakness in the arms and legs, etc.) during the follow-up period, he or she should apply to the clinic where he was treated, to the emergency service or to the physician they were treated.


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