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Cerebral vascular occlusions basically occur in two forms: first, small vessel occlusions and the other large vessel occlusions. The larger the diameter of the occluded vessel, the more severe the brain damage. Depending on the location of the occluded vessel, damage (infarction) and neurological losses occur in the area fed by the vessel. Neurological losses that are frequently observed after stroke are sudden loss of strength (paralysis), loss of sensation, numbness, inability to see one side (hemianopsia), slurred speech (dysarthria), speech and comprehension disorder (aphasia), dizziness, loss of balance, and double vision. in the form of vision. These findings may be accompanied by complaints such as headache, vomiting, epileptic seizures, and loss of consciousness.


What is a transient ischemic attack?

It is the name given to temporary neurological losses that occur in the case of short-term occlusion and opening of the brain vessels. This occurs if the blockage in the vein naturally opens without tissue damage (infarction) in the area where the vein carries blood. Although the treatment approach changes according to the location of the occluded brain vessel and the cause of the occlusion, mainly blood thinner treatments are used.


Why do brain vessels become clogged?

Brain vessels do not structurally differ from other vessels. Therefore, any disease that affects other vessels in the body also affects the brain vessels. These include high blood pressure, diabetes (sugar), high cholesterol and smoking. In addition, advanced age and male gender also cause susceptibility to vascular diseases.


How are cerebrovascular occlusions treated?

The treatment of obstructive stroke can be summarized in two steps: the first is acute treatment, the second is chronic treatment.


Acute treatment of stroke

If strokes that develop due to vascular occlusion can be caught in the early period, venipuncture treatment can be performed. This treatment can be done in two ways as giving drugs into the vein or into the artery. Drug therapy given intravenously in the first 4-5 days of stroke. It can only be done in suitable patients at the same time. Although the drug therapy given into the artery is not as reliable as the drug therapy given into the vein, it can be planned up to the first 6 hours depending on the location of the occluded vessel. Permanent neurological loss was observed to be less in patients who were administered as a result of thrombolysis treatment than in patients who did not. However, 6% of patients had obstruction to brain hemorrhageand sometimes patients may die due to bleeding. The general opinion is that thrombolysis treatment causes improvement in patients who will survive as a result of obstruction, but it causes death in people who will remain severely disabled by causing cerebral hemorrhage.


Chronic treatment of stroke

Here, the plan is closely related to the reason why the occluded vessel is occluded. If occlusion is observed due to a stenosis in the neck vessels and the stenosis is above 70%, the stenosis should be opened with surgical methods or with a stent. If there is a problem that causes clots in the brain due to a heart disease (such as rhythm disorders, atrial fibrillation, heart valve diseases, etc.), strong anticoagulants may need to be used. In other patients, blood thinners that reduce platelet functions are used.


Another issue that is as important as patients' taking blood thinners is the elimination or control of the factors that cause stroke. This includes measures such as the treatment of high blood pressure and diabetes, quitting smoking, reducing excess weight, exercising regularly, and shifting the diet from animal products to herbal products.


In addition, physiotherapy should be planned according to the disability of the patients. Patients with depression should also be given appropriate treatments.

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